Venezuela




the United States in Latin America - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "on Thursday, the US expelled the ambassador from Ecuador, in retaliation for Wednesday's expulsion of the US ambassador from Ecuador"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this now leaves the US without ambassadorial relations in three South American countries - Bolivia and Venezuela being the other two"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "thus surpassing the Bush administration in its diplomatic problems in the region"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "although the Bush administration intervened in the internal affairs of countries such as Bolivia and even Brazil"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it was somewhat better at keeping its "eyes on the prize" and avoiding fights that would distract from its main goal"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the prize, of course, is Venezuela"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "home to the largest oil reserves in the world, estimated by the US geological survey at 500bn barrels"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Washington's goal there for the last decade has been: "regime change""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it's nothing personal, really"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Venezuelan President Chávez could have chosen to be the perfect diplomat and he would still be treated in much the same manner by the US government"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and it's not the oil itself, since Venezuela still sells the US more than 1m barrels a day"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it's just that any country with that much oil is going to have regional influence"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and Washington just doesn't want to deal with someone who has regional influence and doesn't line up with its own goals"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "not if it can get rid of them"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but Washington is losing ground there, too"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "an important part of Washington's strategy in Venezuela"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "was to maintain tension between Colombia and Venezuela"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Colombia's previous president, Álvaro Uribe, was very much allied with the US' strategy toward Venezuela"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but when President Juan Manuel Santos took office, he immediately rejected it"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and decided to make peace with Venezuela"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this turned out to be quite easy to do"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "as anyone who follows Venezuela knows, Chávez is friendly to any head of state or government that is friendly to Venezuela"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Venezuela has close relations with most states in South America, and they all felt the same way about Colombia's foreign policy"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "they were especially concerned about the US military expansion in Colombia"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and even more opposed after US air force documents made it clear that this expansion was"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for mobility operations on the South American continent"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and against the "constant threat" from "anti-US" governments"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for every important election or referendum in Venezuela"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "there is an international media campaign - with the participation of the US government"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a US cable shows the Colombian government sharing with US officials its coordinated media campaign"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "every President and Foreign Minister in South America can see that US policies haven't changed one bit"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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-
Capital: Caracas
- [ GoV = Government of Venezuela ]


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ExxonMobil
- US cable - 2004:
LINK ¤ 04CARACAS2570

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  • "ExxonMobil de Venezuela president Mark Ward said"

 

 

 

 

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  • "that the company is likely to sign the preliminary development agreement (PDA)"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for a multi-billion dollar petrochemical project with the Venezuelan Government"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the integrated facility would convert 1.3 million metric tons of ethane (derived from natural gas)"

 

 

 

 

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  • "into 1 million tons of ethylene"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the ethylene in turn would be converted into high-and low-density polyethylene and ethylene glycol"

 

 

 

 

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  • "used in grocery bags, garment bags, and polyester clothing"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the capital investment for the project is US$ 3 billion"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "ExxonMobil expects that the plant once built would be a major supplier to Latin America's plastics industry"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ExxonMobil - US cable - 2004: LINK ¤ 04CARACAS2740

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  • "Cerro Negro, the company's flagship extra heavy crude project"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "is operating well"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "ExxonMobil is interested in Venezuela over the long term"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "particularly in big projects"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Trade - US cable - 2004:
LINK ¤ 04CARACAS3940

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  • "the US trade deficit with Venezuela is US$ 19.5 billion"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "an increase of US$ 5.2 billion from the trade deficit of US$ 14.3 billion"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "US goods exports to Venezuela were US$ 4.5 billion"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "US imports from Venezuela are US$ 24 billion"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the large increase in imports is related primarily to the price increase of petroleum"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "which represents the vast majority of US imports"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ConocoPhillips - US cable - 2005:
LINK ¤ 05CARACAS162

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  • "ConocoPhillips, the single largest foreign investor in Venezuela"

 

 

 

 

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  • "is negotiating with the Venezuelan Government on the development of the Corocoro offshore oil field"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "by week's end, ConocoPhillips and the Venezuelan Government had resumed negotiations"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the company CEO had agreed to waive any rights to litigate on the issue"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "of the royalty increase previously levied on the Orinoco extra heavy crude projects"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Corocoro field is located in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Paria near Trinidad"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the field was discovered as the result of a profit-sharing agreement"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ExxonMobil - US cable - 2005: LINK ¤ 05CARACAS163

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  • "ExxonMobil intends to take legal action in response to the Venezuelan Government's decision"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to increase the royalty payments levied on the Orinoco extra heavy oil projects"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Exxonmobil and other oil companies had received a highly concessionary 1.0 pct royalty rate for a 10 year period"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "President Chavez announced that the Venezuelan Government was raising the rate to 16.67 pct"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "ChevronTexaco, which has big plans in Venezuela, notably the Deltana Platform natural gas project"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "from the beginning chose not to fight with the Venezuelan Government over the royalty hike"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "viewing it as the inevitable consequence of Venezuela's desire to share more in the run-up in oil prices"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Investment - US cable - 2005:
LINK ¤ 05CARACAS790

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  • "the US is the single largest foreign direct investor in Venezuela"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "representing 53 percent"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "followed by the Cayman Islands with 17 percent, the Netherlands with 7.5 percent and Spain with 5 percent"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the stock of US foreign direct investment was US$ 10.8 billion"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "largely in the petroleum, telecommunications"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "manufacturing and finance sectors"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Statoil - US cable - 2005:
LINK ¤ 05CARACAS3654

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  • "Statoil - the Norwegian oil company - is currently in talks about strategic association Sincor's tax and royalty liabilities"

 

 

 

 

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  • "as well as future expansion plans"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Faja region could contain reserves of up to 1.3 trillion barrels of oil"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Statoil has a 27 percent share in the LL-652 OSA"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a 15 percent share of the Sincor strategic association with a production capacity of 200,000 barrels per day of extra heavy oil"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and Block 4 of the Plataforma Deltana gas field"

 

 

 

 

 

 


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  • "one set of negotiations dealt with the Venezuelan Government's imposition of a 30 percent royalty rate"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for overproduction"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Oil Companies sign Agreements - US cable - 2007:
LINK ¤ 07CARACAS825

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  • "ten foreign oil companies signed documents"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "transferring operational control of their respective projects"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to PDVSA or one of its affiliates"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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ConocoPhillips
- US cable - 2007:
LINK ¤ 07CARACAS1241

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  • "ConocoPhillips has been unable to reach agreement with the Venezuelan Government"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "on the terms for migrating its share of two strategic associations (Petrozuata and Hamaca)"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and a profit sharing agreement (Corocoro) to a PDVSA-controlled joint venture"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "principal sticking points are compensation for lost value and the lack of an exit clause"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it will seek an amicable solution that provides it with adequate compensation for its lost investments"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Statoil - US cable - 2007: LINK ¤ 07CARACAS1822

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  • "Norway's Statoil will receive cash compensation"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for its lost equity in the Sincor strategic association"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Statoil will receive its compensation in the form of cash but has the option of receiving it in crude oil"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it was well above book value"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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PDVSA - US cable - 2007: LINK ¤ 07CARACAS1819

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  • "PDVSA [ petróleos de venezuela ] reported gross revenues of US$ 99.3 billion"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and net profits of US$ 5.5 billion"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the principal reason for the decline in net profits"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "is an increase in social development expenditures"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chevron - US cable - 2007:
LINK ¤ 07CARACAS1977

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  • "Chevron is currently focused on its LNG project in Venezuela [ liquefied natural gas ]"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the development of its LNG project in Plataforma Deltana"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the Colombia-Venezuela gas pipeline"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Chevron's margins in Venezuela remain highly profitable"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Halliburton - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CARACAS827

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  • "Halliburton is concerned"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that its connection with the previous US administration"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "may provide ample rationale to expropriate the US oil services company"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Schlumberger, which would be the largest service company"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "left standing in the event of a Halliburton departure"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "reached an agreement with PDVSA for payments by offering a fifteen per cent discount"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Eni - US cable - 2010: LINK ¤ 10CARACAS163

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  • "Italy's oil company Eni stands to become"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the second largest international oil company operating in Venezuela"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it has agreed to develop the extra heavy crude Junin 5 block"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to build an upgrader and a 1,000 MW power plant"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and to transfer proprietary heavy oil technology to the Bolivarian Republic"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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VENEZUELA - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ VENEZUELA

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  • "Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America"

 

 

 

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  • "it is a state with extremely high biodiversity, with habitats ranging from the Andes mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rainforest in the south"

 

 

 

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  • Population: 33.2 million

 

 

 

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VENEZUELA - Wikipedia ES:
LINK ¤ VENEZUELA
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Venezuela - Map:
LINK ¤ WIKIMEDIA
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